Much transpired in the Indian subcontinent over a very very long period of time, in terms of definitive understanding about life and its reality before accepted, peer validated thought systems were codified for the civil world to ponder, practise and know. The happenings pertain to times so long ago that it is well nigh impossible […]
It does seem that Vedanta rose in view through two practice verticals : action and reasoning. The action vertical rose over several centuries, perhaps millennia, along Purva Mimamsa and (Raja) Yoga practice. The former has no place for a super deity — God, believing entirely on the power of action performed and regarding the unseen immanence as the sole cause behind the certain fruits or consequence of the deed done as prescribed. Yoga does have God — the super being, compared to the individual — in its core but not as a performer of miracles or as lord of the universe. God, Yoga suggests, embodies the ultimate evolved being the individual himself is heading to be when his own practice matures and completes.
Along the other practice vertical — of reason — is Nyaya or logic and Samkhya. Buddhism is largely drwn from the Nyaya method of right knowledge to attaining moksha or nirvana. It also allied to the insistence on certitude of knowledge in respect of any real thing, as detailed in Vaisheshika school of thought, which Jainism borrows. In their ultimate consequences however, Yoga and Samkhya are almost identical, though the latter ends with dualism being the eternal reality while the former eschews such consideration and presents the Self Absolute as the supreme truth.