Historical Dates From Puranic Sources
Prof. Narayan Rao
Indus Valley Civilization
From the similarity of many words of Sanskrit and other Indian languages with Latin and the relatively fair complexion of some of the upper caste Indians the early indologists liked to believe (or rather propagate the believe) that they are of the same racial stock as the Anglo Saxons and just as the Anglo-Saxons had migrated to Britain from the European mainland the ancestors of the fair complexioned upper caste Indians had migrated from Europe. This racial stock was named as Indo-Aryan and it was theorized that they had displaced or subjugated the original inhabitants of the land. The degenerate caste system of India was a handy tool to fit this hypothesis.
By the time the archeological remains of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were discovered in the late nineteenth century the biblical chronology as well as the theory of Aryan migration had been accepted as a proven fact. The discovery of these archeological remains indicated an extinct civilization which neatly fitted the theory of an earlier civilization vanquished by the invading Indo-Aryans. Thus no systematic or serious effort was made to explore the possibility that the Harappan remains could be post Mahabharata or post Vedic.
A critical examination of the Puranic chronology along with the Harappan remains clearly indicates that it belongs to the civilization that prospered during the long period of peace after the battle of Kurukshetra under the reign of the descendants of King Parikshit.
An objective and critical study of the original sources of Indian history shows that the correct chronology of ancient Indian history, confirmed by archeology, astronomical evidences and Greek history is as follows.
1. Kurukhetra battle of Mahabharata took place in the fourth millennium B.C.
2. The Harappan civilization was post-Mahabharata.
3. Lord Buddha lived in the Nineteenth century B.C.
4. Chandragupta Mourya succeeded Mahapadmananda in sixteenth century B.C.
5. Adi Shankara was born towards the end of the sixth century B.C.
6. The last Satavahana Emperor of Magadha was the contemporary of Alexander.
7. The last Satavahana Emperor Chandrabij was known to the Greeks as Xandramese
8. Chandragupta I of Gupta dynasty was known to the Greeks as Sandrocottus.
9. Samudragupta of Gupta dynasty was known to the Greeks as Sandrocyptus.
10. Sandrocyptus who married the daughter of Selucus was Samudragupta.
It is high time that the modern scholars discard the biblical chronology of Indian history and re-examine all sources in the light of modern science.
Appendix – I
Chronological Table Of Sir William Jones … from “The complete Works of Sir William Jones (in 13 volumes) Volume IV, 1807 edition, Page 47 … quoted by Pandit Kota Venkatachelam on page 19 of his book “The Plot in Indian Chronology” published in 1953.
Events Years before 1788 of our era …
Adam Menu I age I 5794 4006 BC
Noah Menu II 4747 2959 BC
Deluge 4138 2350 BC
Nimord Hiranyakasipu Age II 4006 2218 BC
Bel Bali 3892 2104 BC
Rama Rama Age III 3817 2029 BC
Noah’s death 3787 1999 BC
Pradyota 2817 1029 BC
Buddha Age IV 2815 1027 BC
Nanda 2487 699 BC
Balin 1937 149 BC
Vikramaditya 1844 66 BC
Devapala 1811 23 BC
Christ 1787 1 AD
Narayanapala 1721 67 AD
Saka 1709 79 AD
Walid 1080 708 AD
Muhmud 786 1002 AD
Chengiz 548 1240 AD
Timur 391 1397 AD
Babur 276 1512 AD
Nadirshah 49 1739 AD
Appendix – II
Sandrocottus And Chandragupta
If Sandrocottus of Greek history is identified as Chandragupta Mourya we run into a number of difficulties which the modern historians have not yet been able to explain.
1. The name of the predecessor of Mourya Chandragupta, i.e. Nanda does not at all resemble the name Xandramese of Greek history. Similarly the name of his successor Bindusara does not resemble Sandrocyptus of Greek history.
2. The Greek accounts describe a vast empire and army under the command of Xandramese and Sandrocottus; though the Puranas state that the empire of Nanda was very extensive it is categorically stated that the kingdom of the Mouryas was rather small not including even Kalinga, the state just to the south of Magadha.
3. Greek accounts describe Palibothra as the capital of Sandrocottus. But the Puranas are specific about the fact that the capital of the Mouryas was at Giribraja. The capital was shifted to Pataliputra (Palibothra) only during the rule of the Satavahan dynasty.
4. No Indian account of Mahapadmananda or Chandragupta Mourya is complete without the description of Koutilya and Arthashastra. There is no direct or indirect reference in any Greek account to Koutilya or his Arthashastra.
5. The description of the society given in the Greek accounts does not even remotely resemble the description of the society given in Arthashastra. For example, Koutilya has given elaborate rules about slavery and punishments prescribed for those connected with it. But from the Greek accounts it appears slavery was unknown in India.
6. The Greek accounts describe Sandrocottus as a usurper who had treacherously killed King Xandramese after having won the confidence of the Queen. In contrast Chandragupta Mourya, guided by Chanakya, had overthrown the Nandas after a civil war.
7. According to the Puranas at the time of the establishment of Mourya dynasty Buddhism was spreading fast but the Greeks make no mention of Lord Buddha or Ashoka (either Ashokavardhana, or Dharmasoka).
Thus it is clear that the Sandrocottus was not Chandragupta of Mourya dynasty. If Sandrocottus is identified as Chandragupta I of Gupta dynasty the following correspondences are obtained between the Greek and Indian names.
Greek Name Indian Name
Xandramese Chandrabij (last Satavahan king)
Sandrocottus Chandragupta (first Gupta king)
Appendix – III
Dates Of Some Of The Important Historic Events As Mentioned In The Puranas …
Event Year in B.C.
Kurukshetra battle of Mahabharata
and coronation of King Parikshit 3138
End of Brihadratha dynasty (of Jarasandha)
and start of Pradyota dynasty 2132
in Magadha (capital Giribraja)
End of Pradyota dynasty
and start of Shishunag dynasty of Magadha 1995
Birth of Lord Buddha 1887
Nirvana of Lord Buddha 1807
End of Shishunag dynasty
and cornation of Mahapadmanand 1634
End of Nanda dynasty
and coronation of Chandragupta Mourya 1534
Coronation of Ashoka (Ashokavardhana) 1472
End of Mourya dynasty
and coronation of Pushyamitra Sunga 1218
End of Sunga dynasty
and start of Kanwa dynasty 918
(Coronation of Vasudeva)
End of Kanwa dynasty
and start of Andhra dynasty 833
Coronation of Shrimukha (capital Giribraja)
Birth of Adi Shankaracharya (in South India) 509
Establishment of Dwaraka Shankarcharya Pitha 491
Establishment of Kanchi Kamokoti Pitha 482
End of Andhra dynasty
with assassination of King Chandarbij
(Xandramese of Greek history) 327
and coronation of Chandragupta
(Sandrocottus or Androcottus of Greek history)
Capital Pataliputra (Palibothra)
Coronation of Samudragupta
(Sandrocyptus of Greek history) 320
End of Gupta dynasty
and decline of Magadha empire 82
Establishment of the suzerainty
of Emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain 58
(Born in 101 B.C. and coronated in 86 B.C. at Ujjain)
over the whole of India and start of Vikram Sambat