“In a polar region there is a continual deposition of ice, which is not symmetrically distributed about the pole. The earth’s rotation acts on these asymmetrically deposited masses [of ice], and produces centrifugal momentum that is transmitted to the rigid crust of the earth. The constantly increasing centrifugal momentum produced in this way will, when it has reached a certain point, produce a movement of the earth’s crust over the rest of the earth’s body, and this will displace the polar regions toward the equator.”
Albert Einstein – From The Path of the Pole by Charles Hapgood
This mammoth is dead for thousands of years when our story begins. Back then, when it happened, its body was instantly deep-frozen. Millennia later, when found in the Siberian permafrost region, its body tissue was so well preserved that the sledge dogs eagerly fed on it. Autopsy reports said the mammoth had plants in its stomach undigested and very well preserved by the subzero temperatures, and some was still in its mouth. These plants were of subtropical kind and did not exist in Siberia as we have it today. It remained a ridle, unsolved for long : Surely, the mammoth was in a subtropical region, the kind that presently prevails in Northern India, South-east China and Central Asia, which have cool winters with little or no frost and perceptibly warm summers. And, if the mammoth lived in a subtropical climate, how come it was deep-frozen so quickly as to not decompose even a little ?
Those in Siberia, who grappled with puzzle, wondered where this huge animal found food enough to live on in the region where the carcass was found, in so cold a climate that permitted little vegetation and was mostly barren. The only plausible explanantion was that the mammoth indeed roamed in subtropical clime but was subjected to rapid change in ambience that froze it to death. Unbelievably rapid, we have to admit, for signs of start of decomposition would be evident even upon a day’s exposure to temperatures above 8 degree centigrade, as would be common in regions abovee the tropic in northern hemisphere.
The convergence of likely happenings was still dumbfounding. What or how did it actually happen ? How was it that the mammoth was in south-east China, say, and was transported to Siberia within a matter of hours ? Or, that the region had a subtropical climate and transformed into an arctic one within a day ? The absence of least decomposition was just incompitible with the subtropical vegetation stuck in its mouth. It made any expansion of the mammoth’s story an utterly controversial.
That is when cataclysmic evolutionists stepped up and made this mammoth a part of their main argument. Which was of course overlooked and denied for long. The suggestion was considered too dramatic to accept : the drastic change of climate pointed to something unthinkable, cataclysmic, that had shifted shifted the climatic zones over a quarter of the globe. It implied that the location of the poles too had shifted by equal measure. And it must have happened in an instant, so to speak. Nothing in our orthodox scientific understanding could suggest an alternate explanation to the mammoth phenomenon, came to be dated about 12,000 years BP, coinciding with the last Ice Age.
Further studies have established that indeed there were many ice ages, almost with periodic certainty, in the course of our planet’s history. What remained to be discovered were the scientific facts behind the regular event.
One explanation was linked to pervasive electromagnetism. The universe is a gigantic electromagnetic structure and all matter within and without the earth is arranged and located under the action of electromagnetic field. It’s been known that the planet acts as a gigantic dynamo with a dense inner core within liquid magma, on which the hard crust floats. The atomic magnetic dipoles in the core get aligned under the action of the cosmic electromagnetic field and set up a magnetic field. The rotating crust, with much higher surface speed, cuts the magnetic field and are electrically charged. That sets up an appreciable electromagnetic field, both within and around the earth.
The entire arrangement however is highly unstable. Electromagnetic systems are known to reverse their polarity. Study of lava along ridges on the ocean floor, solidified upon every major cataclysmic event, shows the direction of the field then acting on the embedded dipoles and, by inference, the location of the poles on earth’s surface. Measurements of the orientation of magnetic particles in different ridges by the research vessel Glomar Challenger revealed that the direction of the field changed diametrically at least 170 times in the last 70 million years. There were evidence of many more reversals that were less complete or extended.
The other allied phenomenon is change in the earth’s orbit around the sun on account of increase or decrease in the charge accumulated on the body, much like the rise or fall of the electron around the nucleus when it absorbs or radiates a photon. Planets receive energy from collisions with cosmic bodies and they release energy in volcanic eruptions. If the change in a planet’s electromagnetic charge is significant, a jump to higher or lower orbit jump can take place. Ancient Mayan and Chinese claim after major natural disasters that the sun appeared smaller and the moon appeared bigger, indicating that distances between the Earth and Sun and the Earth and Moon had perhaps changed.
The suggested orbital change happens in a split second. The impact of pole reversal would also be instantaneous and devastating. Water in sea and lakes would rise a mile high and run over hundreds of miles into the continents, destroying everything in their paths. Hurricanes and tornadoes pale in comparison to the force of winds unleashed that would reach speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. Continental shelves may slam into ocean floors. New mountain ranges might form and existing formations would forced higher up. The Andes in South America have evidence of sandy beaches and sea shells thousands of feet above the sea level. In the Himalayas, and the Alps too, seashells and fossilised sea creatures were discovered. Volcanic eruptions would spew huge amounts of dust and other hot sediments and pollutants high into the atmosphere.
True Polar Wander
A third phenomenon that comes into play is on account of redistribution of earth’s mass, such as to change its moment of inertia. The increase or decrease of permafrost asymmetrically distributed about the poles is an instance when this could happen. The other causes could be changes in the orientation of the Moon or of other planets.
The Earth is not a true sphere, and therefore has three orthogonal axes of inertia. The axis around which the moment of inertia is greatest is closely aligned with the rotation axis (the axis going through the North and South Poles). The other two axes lie in the equatorial plane.
If the moment of inertia around one of the two axes close to the equator becomes nearly equal to that around the polar axis, then the constraint on Earth to compulsorily spin about the axis passing through the poles is relaxed. Small perturbations can move the sphere so that it spins around another axis in equatorial plane. In the same way, when the conditions are right, the Earth (both the crust and the mantle) can slowly reorient so that a new geographic point moves to the North Pole, while keeping the axis of low moment of inertia quite near the equator. Such a reorientation changes the latitudes of most points on the Earth, by amounts that depend on how far they are from the axis near the equator that does not move.
Geographical (or true) polar wander occurs with a shift of the entire earth or some part of it (lithosphere, lithosphere + mantle) relative to the spin axis, resulting in a change in the position of the geographic poles on the earth’s surface. Lines of longitude join at the geographic poles. Its a case of the entire continent moving, sliding over the mantle, to orient the axis of maximum moment of inertia along the spin axis of the earth. Theis displaces the place at the poles of spin axis and brings in another with the shift of earth’s crust.
In Sum …
Traces of glaciation are found everywhere on the earth’s crust. There is ample evidence of polar jumps all over the planet. The impact of these events on biological organisms is devastating, for not only does the climate of specific places change suddenly but there is a shift of the temperature range over the entire planet. Species not suited to live in the new temperature range either adapt or mutate, or are wiped out. This might explain why in the course of the Earth’s history up to 90 percent of the species were wiped out. Perm, Trias and the Jurassic extinctions are well-documented examples.
But extinctions did not happen only in remote geological times. The last one wiped out the mammoths, the mastodons, saber tooth tigers and other so-called ice age animals only several thousand years ago. Fossil remains and geological evidence prove beyond doubt that the cycles of creation, evolution, and destruction are part of this planet’s history. Life as such has survived all these cataclysms but there is no way telling which life forms will survive the brutal change.
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